Wildlife Conservation and Its Importance

Mohammad Hanief

There are hundreds of wildlife species like lions, crocodiles, rhinoceros present in the forest. They usually get hunted for their skins, nails, horns and meat. Skins are used for manufacturing clothes, ropes and many useful items. Human beings kill these animals only to fulfil their needs, which are unnecessary and can be fulfilled by other alternatives. So, preventing wildlife species from uneven poaching and killing is wildlife conservation. It is the distinctive approach for protecting the wildlife on Earth and their habitat so that their future generations can exist without any fear. Wildlife refers to those organisms that live in forests and remain unfamiliar with the interaction of humans. In simple words, wildlife refers to undomesticated animal species that live away from humans in their habitat.
Animals who live in a wild environment can be called wild animals, which are also referred to as “wildlife” in the modern world. Some of its examples include: Fox, Eagles, Bull, Bear, Crocodile, fox, wild sheep, wild cat, mountain goat, gazelle and so forth. Deserts, forests, rainforests, plains, and grasslands are some places where wildlife is found. Wildlife Conservation can be defined as preventing wildlife from uneven killing and poaching. It also involves the practice of making people aware by telling them about the importance of wildlife. Wildlife Conservation is very important to maintain the food chain and ecosystem balance. If all the tigers get hunted for skins, then the count of deers increases drastically. Along with this, if humans kill all the hens for meat, then there would be no source of eggs. So, Wildlife conservation is necessary to maintain the population of animals on Earth to maintain their role in the ecosystem and food chain. On Earth, all living beings are interconnected to each other. Whether a lion or a human, every organism plays a significant role in the ecosystem. Wildlife conservation aims to maintain this interconnected ecosystem between different species.
Along with protecting animals, the maintenance of natural habitat is the secondary goal of wildlife conservation. The laws under this do not allow the cutting of trees so that the natural habitat of animals does not get disturbed.
In the food chain, all living organisms are interrelated. If any single organism is removed from the food chain, it will disrupt the food chain. For instance, if all the lions are killed, then the count of herbivores will increase. This will lead to disbalance in the ecosystem.
Wildlife sanctuaries provide a natural habitat for animals to breed easily. In this way, they help protect the planet’s natural environment. Endangered animals like giant pandas, tigers, whooping cranes, Asian elephants and so forth live in these wildlife sanctuaries. Here, they can enjoy their habitat and can breed easily.
Wildlife conservation is essential to maintain the balance of the ecosystem. It is necessary to protect the rare and extinct species of animals. In India and around the world, there are different wildlife sanctuaries to protect and preserve some distinctively rare animals like Kaziranga National Park, Jim Corbett National Park, Sepilok Orangutan Sanctuary etc. The governments of many countries have implemented strict norms to promote wildlife conservation. The life of human beings without wildlife is impossible on Earth and therefore, wildlife conservation is very significant. The landmass of India is home to a wide variety of flora and fauna. A wide range of birds and animals live in the diverse terrain of the country. From Royal Bengal Tigers to Asiatic Elephants, India is home to a huge variety of animals in its 89 National Parks, 18 Bio-Reserves, and more than 400 wildlife sanctuaries. The forests of India are home to approximately 500 mammal species and over 2000 bird species. India, like its flora, is a good habitat for Fauna, the collective animal lives. A wide range of animal products is used to benefit our health. More than 90000 animal species can be found in India. This country has approximately 2000 bird species that are classified as Avifauna. They constitute 13% of the global population. There are approximately 2546 fish species present, accounting for nearly 12% of the global stock. It belongs to the Pisci Fauna family. India also has a small percentage of the world’s amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, ranging from 5% to 8%.
North India is rich in wildlife and provides a stunning image of Indian wildlife. North India’s vegetation is primarily deciduous and coniferous, and it is home to a diverse range of species. The North Indian area is home to over 500 animal species, 2000 bird species, and 30,000 insect species, in addition to a diverse diversity of fish, amphibians, and reptiles. Elephants, tigers, leopards, snow leopards, chital, fox, Tibetan Sand Fox, Rhesus Monkey, langurs, jungle cats, hyenas, jackals, and other creatures may be found in North India’s fauna. North India has a fair number of national parks and wildlife preserves. Corbett National Park in Uttarakhand, Dachigam National Park in Jammu and Kashmir, Great Himalayan National Park in Himachal Pradesh, Dudhwa National Park in Uttar Pradesh, and others are among the most popular sanctuaries in North India. The Western Ghats, the Eastern Himalayas, and the Indo-Burma region are three of the 34 richest biodiversity spots in the world. According to a study conducted, India is one of the 17 countries that host about 60 to 70 percent of the world’s biodiversity. Biosphere reserves are protected areas that are meant for the conservation of plants and animals. They also help to restore the traditional life of the tribals living in close vicinity. There are 18 Biosphere Reserves in India established by the government that protects large areas of natural habitats.
These areas provide buffer zones that are open for some economic uses and not only for flora and fauna but humans who inhabit the areas too. There are 3 important zones of the biosphere which include the Core, Buffer, and Manipulation. Some important biosphere reserves are the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve, Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, and so forth.
Endangered species refer to the type of organism that is being threatened by extinction. Internationally, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is one of the most well-recognized catalogs for threatened species.
Generally, the criteria for endangered species include a significant reduction in population size of a large percentage over recent years, with a continuing decline; along with a severe shrinkage in geographic range. A wildlife sanctuary is an area where animal habitats and their surroundings are protected from any sort of disturbances like capturing, killing, and poaching of animals is strictly prohibited in these areas. They aim for providing a comfortable living to the animals. India has some beautiful wildlife sanctuaries with dense forests, large rivers, and mountains. A few important wildlife sanctuaries in India include Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary, Chilika Lake Bird Sanctuary, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, and so forth. The Ranthambore National Park is the largest wildlife sanctuary in India. Excessive exploitation of plant and animal resources by human beings has disturbed the ecosystem thoroughly. About 1,300 plant species are endangered and about 20 species are extinct. Many species are endangered and some have even become extinct. There has been a depletion of wildlife and forests in India. The main cause for this is hunting by greedy hunters for commercial purposes. Pollution caused due to chemical and industrial waste, acid deposits, the introduction of some alien species, and the use of reckless cutting of trees to bring land under cultivation and habitation are also responsible for the imbalances which are caused in the ecosystem.

Editorial editorial article